Peanut Pointers

  

JOHN BEASLEY
University of Georgia
Extension Peanut Agronomist

Many of the runner-type cultivars being grown in the Southeast are much larger seeded than Georgia Green. The larger the seed and pod, the more calcium is needed for optimum yield and grade. The most accurate way to determine if additional calcium is needed is by taking a “pegging zone” soil sample. This sample should be taken adjacent to the row, randomly through the field, soon after plant emergence and at a depth of three inches. Calcium that is taken up by the pod has to be in soil solution in the pegging zone. The plant is unable to transfer calcium from deep in the root zone through the plant into the pods. Additional calcium in the form of gypsum, or landplaster, will need to be applied at early bloom if the calcium level is less than 500 pounds per acre or if the calcium-to-potassium ratio is less than three-to-one.

 
Todd Baughman
Texas A&M University
Extension Agronomist

Proper timing of inputs is critical, as delayed or mis-timed applications of herbicides, fungicides or irrigation can lead to lower yields. When we start the season, we have a yield goal. From that point on, we are trying to protect that yield goal. If weeds are allowed to compete too long, we back off that yield goal. If we get behind on irrigation or start a disease program late, we erode yields even further. In most cases, we will never be able to regain that lost yield potential. We will just be trying to protect a lower yield level from that point forward.

In regards to pesticide selection, remember to select and rotate chemistries, be it herbicides or fungicides. We know with some of our most effective crop protection tools that the possibility for resistance is out there, and that we must use due diligence to prevent resistance from happening.


David Jordan
North Carolina State University
Extension Agronomist
The goal of growers is to optimize economic return per acre. An old proverb says, “farmers can grow their way to profit or save their way to profit.” Every input can potentially increase profit and pay for itself. The challenge is using the right input in the right situation. There is no substitute for knowledge relative to each field, and the only person that can know the field is the farmer and his advisors. Each state has resources available to help identify pests and pest damage and determine nutrient needs. Pull these and other factors together to devise the best strategy to optimize profit. Put knowledge to work and keep detailed records to address these issues the next time peanuts rotate to that field.

In mid-season, decisions are related to gypsum application, southern corn rootworm control, weed management and disease control. Look closely at each field and develop the optimum strategy for these potential stresses.

 

Kris Balkcom
Auburn University
Agri-Program Associate

Timing is critical for getting control of the first flush of weeds and starting a foliar disease control program. The best bang for your buck is paraquat and 2,4-DB before fruiting. These two herbicides control numerous small weeds. Later, use residual herbicides to carry through the rest of the season. Begin the first leaf spot spray at 35 to 40 days of age. Then follow the AU Leaf Spot Advisory. If we start early and get control in the beginning, we can reap the fruits of our labor by maintaining a clean crop with less disease. This will allow us to harvest on schedule, when we want to instead of when we have to. Now is a good time to check calcium level in the pegging zone. Take a soil sample two to three inches deep in the row and send for analysis. Now we have something concrete to determine if gypsum will be required.

PG