University of Georgia
Extension Peanut Agronomist
Many of the runner-type cultivars being grown in the Southeast are much
larger seeded than Georgia Green. The larger the seed and pod, the more
calcium is needed for optimum yield and grade. The most accurate way to
determine if additional calcium is needed is by taking a “pegging
zone” soil sample. This sample should be taken adjacent to the row,
randomly through the field, soon after plant emergence and at a depth
of three inches. Calcium that is taken up by the pod has to be in soil
solution in the pegging zone. The plant is unable to transfer calcium
from deep in the root zone through the plant into the pods. Additional
calcium in the form of gypsum, or landplaster, will need to be applied
at early bloom if the calcium level is less than 500 pounds per acre or
if the calcium-to-potassium ratio is less than three-to-one.
Texas A&M University
Proper timing of inputs is critical, as delayed or mis-timed applications
of herbicides, fungicides or irrigation can lead to lower yields. When
we start the season, we have a yield goal. From that point on, we are
trying to protect that yield goal. If weeds are allowed to compete too
long, we back off that yield goal. If we get behind on irrigation or start
a disease program late, we erode yields even further. In most cases, we
will never be able to regain that lost yield potential. We will just be
trying to protect a lower yield level from that point forward.
In regards to pesticide selection, remember to select and rotate chemistries,
be it herbicides or fungicides. We know with some of our most effective
crop protection tools that the possibility for resistance is out there,
and that we must use due diligence to prevent resistance from happening.
North Carolina State University
The goal of growers is to optimize economic return per acre.
An old proverb says, “farmers can grow their way to profit or save
their way to profit.” Every input can potentially increase profit
and pay for itself. The challenge is using the right input in the right
situation. There is no substitute for knowledge relative to each field,
and the only person that can know the field is the farmer and his advisors.
Each state has resources available to help identify pests and pest damage
and determine nutrient needs. Pull these and other factors together to
devise the best strategy to optimize profit. Put knowledge to work and
keep detailed records to address these issues the next time peanuts rotate
to that field.
In mid-season, decisions are related to gypsum application, southern
corn rootworm control, weed management and disease control. Look closely
at each field and develop the optimum strategy for these potential stresses.
Timing is critical for getting control of the first flush of weeds and
starting a foliar disease control program. The best bang for your buck
is paraquat and 2,4-DB before fruiting. These two herbicides control numerous
small weeds. Later, use residual herbicides to carry through the rest
of the season. Begin the first leaf spot spray at 35 to 40 days of age.
Then follow the AU Leaf Spot Advisory. If we start early and get control
in the beginning, we can reap the fruits of our labor by maintaining a
clean crop with less disease. This will allow us to harvest on schedule,
when we want to instead of when we have to. Now is a good time to check
calcium level in the pegging zone. Take a soil sample two to three inches
deep in the row and send for analysis. Now we have something concrete
to determine if gypsum will be required.