2001 Variety Guide
By Amanda Huber
"Do not put all of your eggs in one basket," is sage advice when considering what variety to plant in the coming year. Planting two or more varieties will provide a better opportunity to make a good crop should one of the varieties not germinate well, achieve a poor stand or fall prey to disease or insect epidemics. Planting a combination of varieties with different or multiple disease resistance can ensure that one disease, alone, will not wipe out your crop.
While good yield and grade over a wide range of conditions is the most important factor to consider, other factors affect a variety's response.
Your quest to find the right variety should begin with questions in the field. Is my soil type similar to that used in the trials for the variety I am considering? If not, how will the variety respond to my soil type? Will I have irrigation in this field? If not, should I plant an early-maturing variety that may not have enough time to recover from a short-term drought? Is there adequate drainage in this field? What is this field's rotation? Finally, what diseases, insects and nematodes are likely to infect this field? Can I plant a variety that is resistant to my worst pest problems?
Next, consider timing issues. What is the optimum planting window for the variety I am considering? Should I plant early- and late-maturing varieties to stretch out harvest because of a lack of harvest equipment and/or labor? Are insects and diseases a serious threat to late-maturing varieties? Will an early frost jeopardize my crop?
Finally, think of issues concerning the variety itself. Is an adequate supply of seed available? Is the seed of good quality? Will I have a market in which to sell my crop?
Variety selection is the most important decision you make all year. Take time to consider the factors affecting variety selection, to study Extension and university variety trial data and to find the answers you need to make the right decision.
AgraTech 1-1: This runner variety, with its early-maturing characteristics, maturing at about 120 days in the Southeast, will be beneficial to growers needing to spread out harvest. It has good yield potential, and it has runner growth habit with a distinct mainstem. Flowering occurs on the mainstem with fruiting at every node. Seed size and shape are suitable for shelling practices and the percentages of medium and jumbo seed are similar to GK 7. Research shows AgraTech 1-1 has excellent tolerance to TSWV. Seed supply should meet demand.
AT 108: A high yielding AgraTech variety, AT 108 has a flat growth habit with erect mainstem. It matures slightly earlier than GK-7 and has a higher percentage of jumbos, with about 5 percent higher yields.
AT 120: This variety is one of the earliest maturing varieties available, 10 to 15 days before Florunner. It has excellent yield potential and is equal to Florunner in TSWV tolerance. Its growth habit resembles GK-7, but flowers on the mainstem.
AgraTech 201: With excellent tolerance to TSWV and high yielding potential, this runner-type variety from AgraTech produces more vine growth and establishes a faster ground cover than many other varieties. Maturity is similar to GK-7, about 130 to 135 days. Growth habits, seed size and shape are also similar to GK-7. A limited supply of registered seed will be available in 2001.
Andru 93: Developed by the University of Florida and licensed to Anderson Peanut Company, Andru 93 is an early maturing variety. Planting to maturity is about 125 to135 days. It is a sister line to Marc 1, with slightly larger seed size. Growth characteristics, including susceptibility to leafspot, are similar to Marc 1.
C-99R: This new variety, licensed through Cargill, has the same disease resistance package as MDR 98, with better resistance to TSWV. It also has better seedling vigor, a problem with the MDR 98 variety. C-99R is large seeded and late maturing, 145 to 155 days, showing excellent yields and grades. Seed supply will be limited because the variety is still in seed increase.
COAN: COAN is highly resistant to Southern root-knot nematode. The variety gets its nematode resistance from a gene collected from South American wild peanut species. The variety produces 17 percent smaller vines than Florunner, which reduces yields below acceptable levels. The variety has no known disease resistance. Seed will be available in small amounts for 2001. Another nematode-resistant variety with higher yield potential will be released by Texas A&M University in the near future.
Flavor Runner 458: Released by Mycogen, Flavor Runner 458 is a high oleic runner type variety. It is similar to Florunner in regards to pod and seed color, seedling vigor, hull thickness, seed size and disease and insect resistance. First grown commercially in 1997, seed supplies should meet demand.
Florida MDR 98: MDR stands for multiple disease resistance, and the diseases include late leafspot, white mold, TSWV and rust. These and other characteristics of the variety are similar to Southern Runner, including maturing about two weeks later than Florunner. Florida MDR 98 is considered a medium level oleic acid variety. Seed supply could be limited. Seed quality problems this year and next. Especially important to meet the calcium requirement, more so than Georgia Green.
Florunner: The impact of this variety, released in 1969 by the University of Florida, on the peanut industry is almost immeasurable. However, more recently released varieties exceed Florunner yields and provide disease resistance.
GK-7: Similar to Florunner in maturity, GK-7 has shown slightly higher yield and grade. It has uniform pod and seed size. This variety has shown some tolerance to spotted wilt when compared with some other varieties.
GK-7 High Oleic: This variety is similar to GK-7, but with high oleic oil chemistry. The high oleic variety, however, shows more tolerance to TSWV than GK-7.
Georgia Green: High yields, good grades and resistance to TSWV and white mold have made Georgia Green a very popular variety. An increased dollar return compared with Florunner and a significantly higher percentage of total sound mature kernels (TSMK) compliment the disease resistance. Georgia Green does not have resistance to leafspot.
Georgia High Oleic: Released in 1999 by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Georgia High Oleic combines high yield with TSWV resistance comparable to Georgia Green and a high Oleic oil ratio. It has an intermediate runner growth habit, pink seedcoat color, a large proportion of extra large kernels and is similar to Florunner in maturity.
Georgia Runner: Released in 1990 by the University of Georgia, this variety has generally been high yielding and produces good grades. It produces 5 percent more jumbo runner peanut seed compared with Florunner. Similar to Florunner in maturity, pest resistance, chemical composition and flavor characteristics, it is quick to emerge and grows vigorously, creating early canopy coverage.
Marc 1: An early maturing cultivar, 10 to14 days earlier than Florunner, Marc 1 has runner growth habit with a prominent main stem. It is susceptible to leafspot and producers must maintain a good fungicide program. Producers with larger acreage may choose this variety to spread out harvest intervals.
Okrun: Okrun, released in 1986 by Oklahoma State University, is similar to Florunner in maturity and appearance of plants and pods, but is slightly more resistant to leafspot and pod rot.
Southern Runner: Released in 1986, Southern Runner was the first variety with resistance to late leafspot. Research also shows it is less susceptible to white mold and TSWV. Southern Runner is a later maturing variety, two to three weeks later than Florunner, and has a more prostrate growth habit than other cultivars. Lighter leaf color, smaller seed size, a light tan seed coat and lengthwise striations on the hull are other characteristics of Southern Runner.
Sun Oleic 97R: This variety has the health and shelf life benefits of the high oleic oil chemistry. It is similar to Florunner and Sunrunner in growth habit and foliage color, with yields averaging 10 percent more than Florunner. This variety is less susceptible to TSWV than its predecessor, SunOleic 95R.
Tamrun 88: This variety emerges quickly and establishes a more uniform stand faster than other runner type varieties. It produces excellent yields and grades, however, it is very susceptible to TSWV.
Tamrun 96: This variety shows high yields and grades while having good tolerance to TSWV. It shows moderate tolerance to southern blight and pod rot. It also tolerates Sclerotinia blight better than Florunner, but not as good as Tamrun 98. It exhibits robust vine growth, with a larger vine than Florunner, and has good peg attachment. The best feature may be that Tamrun 96 is somewhat tolerant to drought stress. Seed may be in short supply for 2001.
Tamrun 98: This variety shows very good tolerance to Sclerotinia blight. However, it should not to be mistaken as an improved version of Tamrun 96, as Tamrun 98 does not include tolerance to TSWV or Southern blight. Growth habit is similar to Florunner. Tamrun 98 seed may not be available for 2001.
ViruGard: This variety is a high-yielding variety with TSWV resistance similar to Southern runner, grades similar to Florunner, maturity averaging 7 to 14 days earlier than Florunner. It has an upright growth habit and seeds larger than Georgia Green, with high percentages of jumbo seed.
AgraTech VC 2: This Virginia variety has very good yield potential and excellent tolerance to TSWV. It has shown some tolerance to white mold and Sclerotinia blight. AgraTech VC 2 has characteristically bright hulls, a uniform pod and seed size and typically produces 70 percent to 80 percent fancy pods, with 25 percent of these being jumbos. Also, this variety has a distinct mainstem, making row marking easier. It matures similar to NC 7. Seed supply should meet demand.
NC 6: This variety exhibits a growth habit intermediate between runner (spreading) and bunch types. It is moderately resistant to the southern corn rootworm, potato leaf hopper and tobacco thrips. It generally sustains about 50 percent less rootworm damage than other Virginia-type varieties. It matures 10 to14 days later than NC 7.
NC 7: NC 7 is considered to be of medium maturity,145 to155 days, depending upon the growing season. It is somewhat resistant to early leaf spot disease and has high yield potential. NC 7 produces a high percentage of extra large kernels and Fancy pods, however, it is very susceptible to CBR and Sclerotinia blight diseases.
NC 9: This variety matures three to five days earlier than NC 7 and has a runner (spreading) growth habit. It has a high yield potential on both sandy and loamy soils. It is somewhat resistant to CBR, but highly susceptible to Sclerotinia blight and leaf spot.
NC 10C: Although it has moderate resistance to CBR, NC 10C is susceptible to all other major peanut diseases of the region. It has a spreading runner growth habit and is 10 to15 days later in maturity than NC 7.
NC-V 11: Under good conditions, NC-V 11 has very high yield and dollar value per acre. Maturity is three to five days earlier than NC 7. It has a spreading runner growth habit and is less susceptible to TSWV than other Virginia-type varieties.
NC 12C: This variety is a large-seeded, CBR-resistant variety similar in maturity, plant type, seed size, shape, seed coat color and yield to NC 7. NC 12C is very susceptible to Sclerotinia blight. The pods have a thin hull with a tendency to darken on roasting. Avoid pod damage during combining to minimize price penalty resulting from excessive levels of loose shelled kernels.
Perry: Released from North Carolina State University, Perry is a large-seeded peanut with partial resistance to CBR and some tolerance to Sclerotinia blight and is characterized by a semi-runner growth habit. It matures slightly later than NC 12C. This variety is still in the Foundation Seed Program.
VA-C 92R: VA-C 92R is an exceptionally high yielding variety, characterized by a spreading (runner) growth habit. Maturity is three to five days earlier than NC 7. Pods of VA-C 92R are generally darker in appearance than pods of other varieties. It is susceptible to all of the major diseases of the region.
VA 93B: While this variety has some resistance to Sclerotinia blight, it is very susceptible to early leaf spot and southern stem rot. Its growth habit is bunch type, and it matures 7 to 10 days earlier than NC 7. The earliness of this variety provides some protection against southern corn rootworm damage. VA 93B has a bright hull color, shapely pods and pink seeds, all desirable traits for in-shell processors.
VA 98R: This variety has a runner growth habit and high yield potential. It is considered early maturing. Pod-size, shape and color are well suited for in-shell uses. VA 98R is susceptible to the major peanut diseases of the Virginia-Carolina production area.
Gregory: With a growth habit intermediate between runner and bunch types, Gregory matures similarly to NC 7. It produces an exceptionally high percentage of extra large kernels and Fancy pods. Due to the large seed size, Gregory has a high soil calcium requirement that may result in reduced seedling vigor if seed is produced under conditions that limit calcium uptake.
Pronto: A large-seeded spanish variety, Pronto has a growth habit typical of spanish varieties, except that it exhibits more yellow-green color than other spanish cultivars. Pronto matures three to four weeks earlier than Florunner, and it has yields and grades similar to Spanco.
Spanco: A high-yielding, spanish-type variety, Spanco is early maturing (10 to 14 days earlier than most other Spanish varieties). It has an erect growth habit and its foliage is greener than Pronto when mature.
Tamspan 90: This variety has excellent yield potential and a key advantage is that it offers good resistance to Sclerotinia blight and Pythium pod rot. It is typical of other spanish-type varieties in vegetative growth, rate of growth and mainstem height. PG